The Committee also notes the Government’s statement that it attaches great importance to cooperation with international organisations in its efforts to combat human trafficking, and notes the detailed information provided by the Government in this regard. (Paragraphs 57 to 60) With regard to Macau SAR, the Committee is concerned that children with disabilities experience de facto discrimination and have limited access to inclusive education and well-trained, motivated teachers. The ITUC’s allegations reference cases where children were brought to work in factories by their parents in order to pay for their school fees.The Committee also notes the information contained in the Government’s report that the net entrance rate for primary school has increased to 99.54 per cent. It further recommends that the State party vigorously address the causes of son-preference, which remain strong in rural areas, and of the negative consequences of the one-child policy as regards the adverse sex ratio by expanding insurance systems and old-age pensions to the population at large, in particular in rural areas. Continue to strengthen policies to promote education and to address educational imbalances between urban and rural areas and among regions (Angola); (accepted)_________________________________________________________________Lack of education provision in minority languagesUN Committee on the Rights of the Child (Concluding Observations, October 2013) The Committee notes the statement in the report of the UNICEF Executive Board entitled “Report of the field visit to China by members of the Bureau of the Executive Board” of 14 May 2010 that despite efforts made by the Government in the education sector, challenges remain, especially in western areas, including disparities in the quality of, and access to, education and the numbers of children out of school (E/ICEF/2010/CRP.11, paragraph 20). (Paragraph 66), UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with DisabilitiesConcluding Observations issued: 15 October 2012, The Committee is concerned about the high number of special schools and the State party’s policy of actively developing these schools. (Paragraph 52) Ultimate authority rests with the CCP Central Committee’s 25-member Political Bureau (Politburo) and its seven-member Standing Committee. 2. The Committee further notes the Government’s statement that it has, since 2008, been carrying out monitoring work on progress towards the balanced development of compulsory education in 72 counties across the country. The Committee further urges the State party to increase public expenditure on education in general, and to take deliberate and targeted measures towards the progressive realisation of the right to education for the disadvantaged and marginalised groups throughout the country. Approximately 4.2 million children are classified as living in extreme poverty, in addition, it is estimated that nearly 9 million children are “disadvantaged”. The Committee calls upon the State party to evaluate the gender sensitivity of the curriculum and textbook reform it has undertaken since 2000 and to further ensure that it explicitly addresses the principle of equality between women and men. The Committee also calls upon the State party to undertake effective reforms in the current education financing policies so as to allocate sufficient funds to support the provision of free and compulsory nine-year education to all children on national, state and local levels; and to eliminate all school-related fees so as to make compulsory primary education truly free for all children. The Committee expresses its serious concern about the lack of accessible compulsory education for the children of migrant workers and urges the Government to redouble its efforts to ensure that these children have equal access to free basic education. (a) The continued exception made to the ‘One-Child Policy’ whereby families with a child with disabilities are allowed to have a second child, a policy which promotes stigmatisation of children with disabilities;(b) The widespread stigma attached to children with disabilities and multiple forms of discrimination they experience, including limited access to education, health care and social services;(c) The severe urban-rural disparity in the number of children with disabilities, and the high number of them living in institutions, particularly in rural areas; and(d) The State party’s policy of actively developing segregated special schools while devoting few resources to the education of children with disabilities in mainstream schools. (Paragraphs 91 and 92) Inter-Ministerial Joint Meeting (IMJM) took place and that, in March 2009, the Ministry of Public Security, and other departments and agencies jointly issued the “Rules for the Implementation of the NPAT (2008–12)”. The Committee further notes the ILO–IPEC information that the TICW Project Phase II was completed in 2008, and that its remaining activities were incorporated into the CP-TING Project. The trafficking of children, disparities between different regions in health and education, the Tibetan situation… etc. This system controls the number of births, launched in 1979 by the Government to regulate the country’s demography, favors couples limiting themselves to have only one child by offering all kinds of benefits  (Housing, education, health…). The Committee recommends that the State party introduce mandatory gender-sensitivity training for family planning officials. The Chinese authorities are trying to control the Tibetan Buddhist religion. (Paragraphs 35 and 36)_________________________________________________________________Killing of children with disabilities, including intellectual disabilitiesUN Committee on the Rights of the Child (Concluding Observations, October 2013) Know more [Virtual Event] Launch of the Resource Book: Public Budgeting for Children’s Rights in the Philippines. In this regard, section 26 of the “Platform on re-education and reform of prisoners” of 2007 provides that the labour performed should focus on the acquisition of skills, and that the duration of labour shall not exceed four hours per day or 20 hours per week. Realizing Children’s Rights in China Chinese children do not fully enjoy their rights, even though progress has been made in recent years. In September 2019, China Labor Watch released a report revealing numerous labour rights violations at the Zhengzhou Foxconn factory, the largest iPhone factory in the world. Furthermore, Hong Kong SAR should systematically collect disaggregated data on children with disabilities and use the collected data in the formulation of policies and programmes for children with disabilities; and(g) Conduct awareness-raising and educational campaigns targeting children with disabilities, the public at large and specific groups of professionals with a view to preventing and eliminating de facto discrimination against children with disabilities in mainland China, in Hong Kong SAR and Macau SAR. (Paragraphs86 to 90) Charged with “subversion of state power,” he could face life imprisonment if co… The Committee previously noted that the law fails to guarantee funding for compulsory education, thus forcing or allowing many schools, particularly in rural regions, to collect tuition and other fees. Education for children of internal migrant workers. . The Committee observes that the Government does not provide information on whether criminal sanctions were imposed on those convicted. While recognising the efforts made by the State party to address trafficking in women and girls, including cross-border and international cooperation, the Committee is concerned that the definition of trafficking in the Penal Code is limited to the purpose of exploitation of prostitution and is therefore not in line with international standards. Trafficking.  It also noted the allegations of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, now the ITUC, that China is a source, transit and destination country for international human trafficking in women and children. The Government indicates that two China–Myanmar border liaison offices were established to combat the cross-border trafficking of women and children, and that 14 trafficking victims were returned to Myanmar in the first half of 2009 as a result of this collaboration. While the Committee notes the significant achievements made by mainland China in education, including the expansion of early childhood care and education, it is concerned about the increasing disparities in access to and availability of education for children living in rural areas and especially for children from ethnic minorities, asylum seeking and refugee children, children of North Korean mothers and migrant workers. In this regard, the Committee noted the Government’s statement that, under the relevant legislation, any form of forced labour involving juvenile delinquents is banned. China Is Violating Uighurs’ Human Rights. The Committee notes the Government’s statement that juvenile delinquent institutions consist of juveniles who shall be rehabilitated through education (those under 16) and juveniles who will be re-educated through labour (those between 16 and 18). The UNESCO EFA report further indicates that the unauthorised migrant schools are of questionable quality and some have been forced to close. It remains however deeply concerned about the continued application of administrative detention of children, including RTL and ‘Work Study Schools’ (gongdu xuexiao), and the failure of the State party to end these practices despite repeated concerns expressed by the treaty bodies and UN special procedures mandate holders. The Committee previously noted that the law fails to guarantee funding for compulsory education, thus forcing or allowing many schools, particularly in rural regions, to collect tuition and other fees. Moreover, the Committee is concerned about the insufficient data and statistical information about the extent of trafficking, in particular internal trafficking.The Committee also urges the State party to take measures aimed at the rehabilitation and reintegration of women in prostitution into society, to enhance other livelihood opportunities for women to leave prostitution, provide support for them to do so and to prevent any detention of women without due legal process Access to health services is limited, making Tibet the worst place to live in China in terms of health. The UNESCO EFA report further indicates that the unauthorised migrant schools are of questionable quality and some have been forced to close. By the end of 2009, seven border liaison offices for combating cross-border human trafficking had been established. in conformity with article 4, paragraph 2 of the Optional Protocol.The Committee further recommends that the State party:(a) Undertake research on the root causes and extent of the commercial sexual exploitation of children, child sex tourism and sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, to identify children at risk, assess the extent of the problem and develop targeted policies and programmes in mainland China and Macau SAR;(b) Immediately address the issue of corruption and impunity in Macau SAR as a matter of priority, through rigorous investigations of complaints of complicity by government officials and their prosecution for such crimes; and(c) Take all necessary measures, legal and institutional, to strengthen identification, investigation and prosecution of foreign paedophiles in all jurisdiction of the State party, particularly in Macau SAR. The Committee notes the information in the communication submitted by the ITUC of 1 September 2010 which indicates that, in March 2010, a new ten-year reform plan for the overhaul and improvement of the education system began. The Committee reminds the Government that, by virtue of Article 3(a) of the Convention, all forms of forced or compulsory labour are considered to be among the worst forms of child labour in which persons under 18 years of age may not be engaged and that, pursuant to Article 1 of the Convention, governments must take immediate and effective measures to secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour as a matter of urgency. In this regard, it requests the Government to provide information on the number of persons (including governmental officials) investigated, convicted and sentenced for cases of trafficking involving victims under the age of 18, and the penal sanctions imposed. The Committee expresses its deep concern regarding children working in hazardous occupations such as mining, often in precarious conditions that fall short of labour safety standards. In this regard, the Committee recommends that the State party reallocate resources from the special education system to promote the inclusive education in mainstream schools, so as to ensure that more children with disabilities can attend mainstream education. It is also concerned that prostitutes may be kept in administrative detention without due process of law. International Labour OrganisationDirect request on Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. Considering that compulsory education is one of the most effective means of combating child labour, the Committee urges the Government to pursue its efforts to ensure that, in practice, all children have access to free compulsory education, paying particular attention to girls and children from ethnic minorities and in rural areas. Children displaced by conflict in the Central African Republic. Thus, the State has established a strict system of juvenile criminal law: 99% of cases brought to trial end in conviction. Moreover, the Committee is concerned about the insufficient data and statistical information about the extent of trafficking, in particular internal trafficking. Education, training and awareness-raising on the CRC. Following its previous comments, the Committee notes the indication in the ITUC’s allegations that many of the worst forms of child labour exist in China, particularly trafficking, forced labour, prostitution, involvement in illicit activities, and use in hazardous work including in brick kilns, glass-making workshops, fireworks workshops and footwear factories. The ITUC states that girls are the first to drop out when economic pressures affect their families, and that girls are more often found to be working in factories. However, it is seriously concerned that despite such programs, infanticide, particularly of girls and children with disabilities remain pervasive, a problem which is exacerbated by mainland China’s ‘One-Child Policy.’In light of article 6 of the Convention, the Committee urges mainland China to consider revising its stringent family planning policy in an effort to combat infanticide, in particular of girls and children with disabilities and to ensure that every child’s inalienable rights to life and survival are protected. It is especially concerned that:(a) Children above 16 years can be detained in RTL facilities without any access to legal safeguards or representation and such detention can last up to 18 months, according to the State party; Forms of administrative detention still in force include the following:− Work Study Schools (gongdu xuexiao), implemented to correct what is described in the Law on Preventing Juvenile Delinquency adopted on 28 June 1999 as “Seriously unhealthy behaviour that seriously harms society but does not qualify for criminal punishments”. Another category of children affected by discrimination in school is children with disabilities: according to official figures, only 76% of them have access to education. (Paragraphs 35 and 36)_________________________________________________________________Killing of children with disabilities, including intellectual disabilitiesUN Committee on the Rights of the Child (Concluding Observations, October 2013), The Committee notes as positive the ‘Care for Girls’ campaign to change traditional preferences for boys and promote greater recognition of the value of girls in mainland China. The Government states that this labour and vocational and technical training aims to improve the employability and earning capacity of the juveniles, to avoid recidivism. (Paragraphs 35 and 36), UN Special Rapporteur on the right to foodCountry visit: 15 to 23 December 2010Report published: 20 January 2012, Another source of exclusion is the household registration system (hukou), the result of which is that, depending on their place of registration, individuals have different entitlements to basic services in the areas of health, education and basic income guarantees. In Tibet, the full realization of Child Rights is far from being reached. Compulsory schooling.  Within the last century, the idea that children need safeguards and protections separate from those of adults greatly impacted both domestic and international law. The Committee previously noted that section 240 of the Criminal Law provides penalties for the sale and trafficking of children. The Committee is concerned about the impact of the adverse sex ratio, which may contribute to the increase in trafficking in women and girls.The Committee urges the State party to strengthen its monitoring of the implementation of existing laws against selective abortion and female infanticide and to enforce them through fair legal procedures that sanction officials acting in excess of their authority. China has made considerable progress in access to health care over the past two years, reducing infant mortality from 65 to 19 deaths per thousand births on average. This policy is very problematic when taken in connection with the right to life guaranteed by art. (Paragraphs 6 and 7), UN Committee against TortureLast reported: 7 and 10 November 2008Concluding Observations issued: 21 November 2008, The Committee appreciates the promulgation of the following new regulations:(d) The prohibition of corporal punishment of children in schools and judicial processes. Lastly, the Committee notes the information in the compilation report of 16 December 2008 prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights for the Universal Periodic Review of China that the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the Committee on the Rights of the Child each called upon China to eliminate all miscellaneous and other “hidden” fees for primary education (A/HRC/WG.6/4/CHN/2, paragraph 38). (Paragraph 36). The situation remains very tense in Tibet with regard to human rights; NGOs are struggling to provide aid because Chinese authorities are very reluctant. Despite government initiatives to reduce poverty, income distribution remains very unequal in China. (Paragraphs 44 and 45), UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural RightsLast reported: 27 to 29 April 2005Concluding Observation issued: 13 May 2005, International Labour OrganisationDirect request on Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. Trafficked children are often subjected to violence, abuse and other human rights violations. While the Committee notes the significant achievements made by mainland China in education, including the expansion of early childhood care and education, it is concerned about the increasing disparities in access to and availability of education for children living in rural areas and especially for children from ethnic minorities, asylum seeking and refugee children, children of North Korean mothers and migrant workers. The UNESCO EFA report also indicates that school budgets continue to be based on the number of official students registered by authorities, and that while individual schools can accept unregistered children, their parents must typically pay a fee to compensate for the lack of government funds, therefore making education inaccessible. Nevertheless each year thousands of children leave school. Part V of the report form. Collaboration in the process of implementation with civil society including children, 5. (Paragraph 19) The Committee notes that the Government refers to the “National Plan of Action against Trafficking in Women and Children (2008–12)” and the “Eleventh Five-Year Plan on the Establishment of a Relief and Protection System for Vagrant Minors”. But the Chinese government has responded by saying that it is for China to decide and that "only the 1.3 billion Chinese people have a say on China's human rights". BE HEARD! Inadequate reproductive health care and education. It is however concerned at reports that in practice Mandarin is the sole language of instruction in many schools in the autonomous minority provinces, especially at secondary and higher levels of education. (Paragraphs 74 and 75) Moreover, doctors apply prohibitive taxes on the Tibetans. The infant mortality rate is one of the highest in the world. The Committee urges mainland China as a matter of priority, to end the use of the RTL and ‘Work Study Schools’ program and that it:(a) Gather data on child labour, incidences of hazardous child labour and working conditions, disaggregated by age, sex, geographical location, socioeconomic background and make them publicly available and use them to develop effective measures to prevent and eliminate all forms of child labour;(b) Identify hazardous work and worst forms of labour carried out by children and strengthen protection and prohibition of employment of children between 16 and 18 years of age in hazardous work;(c) Ensure that for children above the age of 16 involved in labour, their involvement is based on genuine free choice and subject to adequate safeguards based on the Convention and international standards, including through the application of sanctions against individuals involved in forced recruitment; and(d) Consider ratifying ILO Convention No. (Paragraphs 17 and 18)While noting that legal measures prohibiting sex-selective abortions and female infanticide and other measures are in place, such as the nationwide campaign, "Operation Caring for Girls", launched in 2006 and a system of incentives, the Committee remains concerned at the persistence of illegal practices of sex-selective abortion, female infanticide and the non-registration and abandonment of female children, and about forced abortions. The UNESCO EFA report indicates that only two-thirds of Beijing’s 370,000 migrant children were enrolled in public schools. (Paragraph 40)_________________________________________________________________Inadequate guarantees of access to justice for childrenUN Committee on the Rights of the Child (Concluding Observations, October 2013). However, the Committee noted the indication from several sources that the phenomenon of trafficking for the purposes of forced physical labour and prostitution was worsening. Lack of education provision in minority languages In this regard, the Committee notes the indication in the ITUC communication of 1 September 2010 that not all child victims of prostitution are victims of trafficking. The Committee is further concerned about reports that children with disabilities are denied admission by mainstream schools, pressured to leave the schools, or sometimes expelled due to their disabilities. The Committee urges the State party to undertake effective measures to ensure that abortions are carried out voluntarily and under adequate medical and sanitary conditions and to ensure that the existing legislation governing the one-child policy does not violate the rights enshrined in article 10 of the Covenant. UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural RightsLast reported: 27 to 29 April 2005Concluding Observations published: 13 May 2005 It requests the Government to continue to provide information on measures taken in this regard and to provide information from the monitoring and evaluation exercises conducted to monitor these policies. It requests the Government to continue to provide information on measures taken in this regard and to provide information from the monitoring and evaluation exercises conducted to monitor these policies. 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