For example, a person with svPPA tried to brush her teeth with shaving cream. In addition to its connections with psycholinguistic models of semantic processing, this research bears on the issue of conceptual combination [Hampton, in press; Osherson and Smith 1981; 1982; Shoben and Medin, in preparation; Smith and Osherson, 1984; Smith, Osherson, Rips, Albert, and Keane, 1986]. conditioned response. Zwaan, Taylor, and de Boer (2010) asked subjects to read action sentences embedded in a text describing an event as ongoing (e.g., “He opened the bottle”), about to happen (e.g., “He was about to open the bottle”), or completed (e.g., “He had opened the bottle”) while performing a knob rotation task. A streams-based architecture raises fundamental questions about the nature of the streams and the interactions be-tween them. Currently, the only category of words for which a convincing series of reports has demonstrated nonconscious semantic priming, including generalization to novel primes, is the set of number words ( 15 , 16 ). The words used in these experiments were chosen without regard to a particular sensory–motor attribute or category; thus, the results can be interpreted as common brain areas involved in semantic processing regardless of specific semantic content. Second, perirhinal cortex may specifically support fine-grained semantic discriminations, such as required to denote specific fruits or bird species. On the unattended side, there was no difference between related and unrelated trials (no N400 effect), indicating that semantic relationships were not noticed. A similar logic applies to studies contrasting famous against unfamiliar proper names, related against unrelated word pairs, meaningful against nonsensical sentences, and sentences against random word strings. Participants then grasped a wooden block. These findings support the idea that word-level semantic processing may rely on anteroventral regions of the MTL, at the end of the object processing stream. Psycholinguists argue that TOT states occur when there is a transmission of activation failure between the lemma and phonology levels of word production (e.g., Burke, MacKay, Worthley, & Wade, 1991). Kellenbach and Michie (1996) thus intermixed red and green words with red and green nonword letter strings and asked their participants to make lexical decisions only for items in a single color. In either case they begin to give us a handle on how the brain parses high-level tasks into individual operations that are carried out in separate parts of the network. All these instances of multi-word grammaticality underline the fact that future studies on sentence processing shall more and more disentangle relevant dimensions of sentence structure with reference to sentence processing anatomo-functional models and not treat anymore sentences as unitary blocks. Note that, in contrast to the experiments above, the attentional cue was probabilistic (75% valid) rather than absolute, and the instructions mandated some attempt at semantic processing even for uncued locations. This effect occurs above chance probability for combined semantic and phonemic relations, and has been viewed as indicative of bidirectional information flow between both lexical processing levels , , . Moreover, lexical reading also increases the functional connectivity between the left anterior vOT region (associated with word recognition) and the left ventral inferior frontal cortex associated with semantic retrieval. Among the most detailed of these models is that of Osherson and Smith and their colleagues on noun-adjective semantic combination [Osherson and Smith 1981, 1982; Smith and Osherson, 1984; Smith, Osherson, Rips, Albert and Keane, 1986]. Cognitive psychologists quickly realized how fallible our memories are, and although there are some people who can display amazing feats of recall, we know that false memories can be created pretty easily. Previous research has shown that θ oscillations are sensitive to lexical-semantic content of open-class words (Bastiaansen et al., 2005). Truth-conditional semantics. Many of these began with a general distinction between processing word meaning and processing word form without meaning. It may be serving as a monitor of conflict, but it is possible that it plays other roles as well. In May 2013, full-text articles published in English or Portuguese in the previous 10 years, since May 2003, were retrieved from the databases MEDLINE, Web of Science, PsycInfo, LILACS and Biological Abstracts using the following Boolean phrases: semantic processing AND (schizotypy OR schizotypal personality disorder) (MEDLINE); and semantic processing AND schizotypy (Web of Science, … Before antiviral treatment was available, patients often had a chronic semantic impairment due to permanent damage to the anterior and mesial temporal cortex. Macaque area PG/7a, the closest monkey homologue of the angular gyrus, receives inputs exclusively from secondary visual, auditory, and multimodal regions (Andersen, Asanuma, Essick, & Siegel, 1990; Cavada & Goldman-Rakic, 1989; Jones & Powell, 1970). The dorsomedial prefrontal cortex lies between the medial prefrontal areas involved in emotion and reward and lateral prefrontal networks involved in cognitive control and may act as a link between these processing systems, translating affective drive states into a plan for knowledge retrieval. The onset latency of the visual N400 at roughly 200 ms suggests that meaning extraction lags behind analysis of most basic visual properties, but it is logically possible that some earlier semantic analysis is not reflected in the N400. The model states that individuals can process messages in one of two ways: heuristically or systematically. A common task for studying the brain systems involved in semantic processing is to ask subjects to give the use of a common noun (e.g., hammer). Although semantic processing generally produces greater recall that shallower levels of processing, a study by Morris et al. 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